Abstract：The global self-esteem is developed by external physical appearance and internal psychological character, there are gender differences in the effect. Because of the emphasized man’s achievements and successes, the personality character from which the achievements and successes benefit more than physical appearance is more important to man. However, female is more susceptible to information about physical attractiveness. The weight-em-by-importance model suggests that the self-evaluation in a perceived important field can make remarkable fluctuation on the self-esteem. The purpose of the study was to investigate the gender differences in prediction of self-esteem by external appearance and internal character. A total of 180 participants (90 females and 90 males) were included in the study. The average age for the participants was 21.87 years (SD = 2.77). Researchers randomly selected participants to answer the questionnaires at the library. Firstly, participants were asked to judge the extent how the 40 words (20 appearance/20 character) describe themselves by using 5-point scale (1=not at all like me, 5=very much like me). And then Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) was used to assess participants’ global self-esteem. The results showed that man’s self-esteem was more affected by personality character than physical appearance, but only thephysical appearanceself-evaluation showed a significant correlation with woman’s self-esteem. Interestingly, the present study also found that the woman’s appearance self-evaluation moderated the relationship between character self-evaluation and the self-esteem, woman’s internal character could predict their self-esteem positively only when the woman evaluated their appearance highly. The findings of the current study provided evidences to support the hypothesis that character self-evaluation, compared with appearance self-evaluation, could predict the man’s self-esteem better; while the appearance self-evaluation could make a larger influence on the woman’s self-esteem compared to the character self-evaluation.