1. Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China; 2. Institute for Brain Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China; 3. Fushun Technician Institute, Fushun 113123, China
Abstract：In recent years, many researchers have studied risk-taking behavior in competitive situations and found that competition can increase individual risk-taking behavior. This review paper begins by describing how to define competition and risk-taking and how to measure them in psychological research. Then, studies investigating the effect of competition on individuals’ risk-taking are described and factors that modulate such effects are summarized. Furthermore, social comparison theory and risk-sensitive theory are introduced in an attempt to account for such effects. Additionally, we also introduced neurophysiological mechanisms about the effects of competition on risk-taking behavior. Finally, this review summaries and extends the existing research framework and future directions are discussed.